Hunderte Tonnen Brand- und Sprengsätze verwüsteten am Februar das weltberühmte Benediktinerkloster Monte Cassino. Grund war ein. Nach bereits mehrmaligem Vorbeifahren am Montecassino zu unserem Urlaubsdomizil, haben wir uns zu einem Zwischenstop entschlossen. Wunderschöne. Als die Alliierten weiter nach Norden auf das Kloster vorstießen, 13 Meisterwerke aus Montecassino fand man nach.
Kloster Monte Casino VideoAbbey of Montecassino, bells
Col Hunt - Alexander's personal intelligence officer - later became Sir David Hunt, diplomat, author and private secretary to the post-war prime ministers Clement Attlee and Winston Churchill.
In February , when Monte Cassino was bombed, he was general staff officer in charge of intelligence in a unit with Sir Rupert.
German strongpoints in the mountains around Cassino were imperilling the allied advance towards Rome. Fighting in conditions almost as severe as the trenches of the first world war, allied units on exposed slopes were under heavy artillery fire which they were convinced was being directed by spotters in the 1,ft high monastery.
But Sir Rupert's book says Hunt told him after the war that the monastery was not occupied by the German parachutists who were holding the Cassino feature.
The translation then produced was 'Is the HQ in the abbey? It was only when Col Hunt questioned the translation and the whole intercept that it transpired that the correct reply to the question was, in fact, 'Ja, Abt is mit Monchem in Kloster'.
The abbot is with the monks in the monastery'. From his own study of the papers of British, American and Commonwealth generals in the Imperial War Museum, Lord Carver said he did not think the reportedly misread intercept was likely to have influenced the decision to bomb.
But Brigadier Watkins said: We know from records that Alexander was very conscious of allied responsibilities under this agreement.
The intercept, in its mistranslated form, implied the Germans had broken their word. That exonerated the allies and served as a green light for the bombing.
In public, allied leaders exploited the belief that Monte Cassino was occupied to prepare opinion for aerial attacks on it. On February 14 allied guns fired leaflets over the area warning that, in view of the German occupation, "with very heavy hearts we are going to have to turn our weapons on the abbey".
By the th centuries Monte Cassino became the most famous cultural, educational, and medical center of Europe with great library in Medicine and other sciences.
Many physicians came there for medical and other knowledge. That is why the first High Medical School in the world was soon opened in nearby Salerno which is considered today the first Institution of Higher Education in the world.
This school found its original base in the Benedictine Abbey of Monte Cassino still in the 9th century and later settled down in Salerno.
So, Montecassino and Benedictines played a great role in the progress of medicine and science in the Middle Ages, and with his life and work St. Benedict himself exercised a fundamental influence on the development of European civilization and culture and helped Europe to emerge from the "dark night of history" that followed the fall of the Roman empire.
The buildings of the monastery were reconstructed in the 11th century on a scale of great magnificence, artists being brought from Amalfi, Lombardy, and even Constantinople to supervise the various works.
The abbey church, rebuilt and decorated with the utmost splendor, was consecrated in by Pope Alexander II.
A detailed account of the abbey at this date exists in the Chronica monasterii Cassinensis by Leo of Ostia and Amatus of Monte Cassino gives us our best source on the early Normans in the south.
Abbot Desiderius sent envoys to Constantinople some time after to hire expert Byzantine mosaicists for the decoration of the rebuilt abbey church. According to chronicler Leo of Ostia the Greek artists decorated the apse, the arch and the vestibule of the basilica.
Their work was admired by contemporaries but was totally destroyed in later centuries except two fragments depicting greyhounds now in the Monte Cassino Museum.
Architectural historian Kenneth John Conant believed that Desiderius' rebuilding included pointed arches, and served as a major influence in the nascent development of Gothic architecture.
Abbot Hugh of Cluny visited Monte Cassino in , and five years later he began to build the third church at Cluny Abbey , which then included pointed arches and became a major turning point in medieval architecture.
An earthquake damaged the Abbey in , and although the site was rebuilt it marked the beginning of a long period of decline. In , Pope John XXII made the church of Monte Cassino a cathedral, and the carefully preserved independence of the monastery from episcopal interference was at an end.
That situation was reversed by Pope Urban V , a Benedictine, in The site was sacked by Napoleon 's troops in From the dissolution of the Italian monasteries in , Monte Cassino became a national monument.
The German military forces had established the kilometre mile Gustav Line , in order to prevent Allied troops from advancing northwards.
The abbey itself however, was not initially utilised by the German troops as part of their fortifications, owing to General Kesselring 's regard for the historical monument.
The Gustav Line stretched from the Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic coast in the east, with Monte Cassino itself overlooking Highway 6 and blocking the path to Rome.
On 15 February the abbey was almost completely destroyed in a series of heavy American-led air raids. The bombing was conducted because many reports from the British commanders of the Indian troops on the ground suggested that Germans were occupying the monastery, and it was considered a key observational post by all those who were fighting in the field.
Subsequent investigations have since confirmed that the only people killed in the monastery by the bombing were Italian civilians seeking refuge there.
The Abbey was rebuilt after the war. During reconstruction, the abbey library was housed at the Pontifical Abbey of St Jerome-in-the-City.
In December , some 1, irreplaceable manuscript codices , chiefly patristic and historical, in addition to a vast number of documents relating to the history of the abbey and the collections of the Keats-Shelley Memorial House in Rome, had been sent to the abbey archives for safekeeping.
Julius Schlegel a Roman Catholic and Capt. Maximilian Becker a Protestant , both from the Panzer-Division Hermann Göring , had them transferred to the Vatican at the beginning of the battle.
Soldiers of the Reichsmarschall" , notes that trucks were loaded with monastic assets and art which had been stored there for safekeeping. The trucks were loaded and left in October , and only "strenuous" protests resulted in their delivery to the Vatican, minus the 15 cases which contained the property of the Capodimonte Museum in Naples.
Edsel goes on to note that these cases had been delivered to Göring in December , for "his birthday. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Salkin; Sharon La Boda, eds. International Dictionary of Historic Places: Volume 3 Southern Europe. The Life of Saint Benedict. The Life of St.
Translated by Hilary Costello and Eoin de Bhaldraithe. The Age of Faith. The Age of Faith: Bullarum, diplomatum et privilegiorum sanctorum romanorum pontificum Taurinensis editio in Latin Tomus IV ed.
Franco et Henrico Dalmazzo editoribus. Monte Cassino in the Middle Ages. Retrieved 22 May Frosinone Latina Rieti Rome Viterbo.
Elections in Lazio List of Presidents of Lazio. Roman Catholic Ecclesiastical Province of Rome. Retrieved from " https: CS1 Latin-language sources la All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from March Coordinates on Wikidata.
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