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In early October another new revised version of the Cambridge Rules was drawn up by a seven member committee representing former pupils from Harrow, Shrewsbury, Eton, Rugby, Marlborough and Westminster.
The aim of the Association was to establish a single unifying code and regulate the playing of the game among its members.
Following the first meeting, the public schools were invited to join the association. All of them declined, except Charterhouse and Uppingham. In total, six meetings of the FA were held between October and December After the third meeting, a draft set of rules were published.
However, at the beginning of the fourth meeting, attention was drawn to the recently published Cambridge Rules of The Cambridge rules differed from the draft FA rules in two significant areas; namely running with carrying the ball and hacking kicking opposing players in the shins.
The two contentious FA rules were as follows:. A player shall be entitled to run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal if he makes a fair catch, or catches the ball on the first bound; but in case of a fair catch, if he makes his mark he shall not run.
If any player shall run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal, any player on the opposite side shall be at liberty to charge, hold, trip or hack him, or to wrest the ball from him, but no player shall be held and hacked at the same time.
At the fifth meeting it was proposed that these two rules be removed. Most of the delegates supported this, but F. Campbell , the representative from Blackheath and the first FA treasurer, objected.
However, the motion to ban running with the ball in hand and hacking was carried and Blackheath withdrew from the FA. After the final meeting on 8 December, the FA published the " Laws of Football ", the first comprehensive set of rules for the game later known as Association Football.
The term "soccer", in use since the late 19th century, derives from an Oxford University abbreviation of "Association". The first FA rules still contained elements that are no longer part of association football, but which are still recognisable in other games such as Australian football and rugby football: In Britain , by , there were about 75 clubs playing variations of the Rugby school game.
However, there was no generally accepted set of rules for rugby until , when 21 clubs from London came together to form the Rugby Football Union RFU.
The first official RFU rules were adopted in June These rules allowed passing the ball. They also included the try , where touching the ball over the line allowed an attempt at goal, though drop-goals from marks and general play, and penalty conversions were still the main form of contest.
As was the case in Britain, by the early 19th century, North American schools and universities played their own local games, between sides made up of students.
For example, students at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire played a game called Old division football , a variant of the association football codes, as early as the s.
Rules were simple, violence and injury were common. Yale University , under pressure from the city of New Haven , banned the play of all forms of football in , while Harvard University followed suit in A hybrid of the two, known as the " Boston game ", was played by a group known as the Oneida Football Club.
The club, considered by some historians as the first formal football club in the United States, was formed in by schoolboys who played the "Boston game" on Boston Common.
The universities of Yale, Princeton then known as the College of New Jersey , Rutgers , and Brown all began playing "kicking" games during this time.
In , Princeton used rules based on those of the English Football Association. In Canada, the first documented football match was a practice game played on November 9, , at University College, University of Toronto approximately yards west of Queen's Park.
One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was Sir William Mulock, later Chancellor of the school.
Barlow Cumberland, Frederick A. Bethune, and Christopher Gwynn, one of the founders of Milton, Massachusetts, devised rules based on rugby football.
On November 6, , Rutgers faced Princeton in a game that was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used improvised rules. It is usually regarded as the first game of American intercollegiate football.
During the game, the two teams alternated between the rugby-based rules used by McGill and the Boston Game rules used by Harvard. On November 23, , representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit Convention in Springfield, Massachusetts , agreeing to adopt most of the Rugby Football Union rules, with some variations.
In , Yale coach Walter Camp , who had become a fixture at the Massasoit House conventions where the rules were debated and changed, devised a number of major innovations.
Camp's two most important rule changes that diverged the American game from rugby was replacing the scrummage with the line of scrimmage and the establishment of the down-and-distance rules.
President Theodore Roosevelt to hold a meeting with football representatives from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton on October 9, , urging them to make drastic changes.
Though it was underutilised for years, this proved to be one of the most important rule changes in the establishment of the modern game.
Over the years, Canada absorbed some of the developments in American football in an effort to distinguish it from a more rugby-oriented game.
In , the Ontario Rugby Football Union adopted the Burnside rules , which implemented the line of scrimmage and down-and-distance system from American football, among others.
In the midth century, various traditional football games, referred to collectively as caid , remained popular in Ireland, especially in County Kerry.
One observer, Father W. Ferris, described two main forms of caid during this period: By the s, Rugby and Association football had started to become popular in Ireland.
Trinity College, Dublin was an early stronghold of Rugby see the Developments in the s section, above. The rules of the English FA were being distributed widely.
Traditional forms of caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game" which allowed tripping. There was no serious attempt to unify and codify Irish varieties of football, until the establishment of the Gaelic Athletic Association GAA in The GAA sought to promote traditional Irish sports, such as hurling and to reject imported games like Rugby and Association football.
The first Gaelic football rules were drawn up by Maurice Davin and published in the United Ireland magazine on February 7, Davin's rules showed the influence of games such as hurling and a desire to formalise a distinctly Irish code of football.
The prime example of this differentiation was the lack of an offside rule an attribute which, for many years, was shared only by other Irish games like hurling, and by Australian rules football.
Professionalism had already begun to creep into the various codes of football. In England, by the s, a long-standing Rugby Football Union ban on professional players was causing regional tensions within rugby football, as many players in northern England were working class and could not afford to take time off to train, travel, play and recover from injuries.
This was not very different from what had occurred ten years earlier in soccer in Northern England but the authorities reacted very differently in the RFU, attempting to alienate the working class support in Northern England.
In , following a dispute about a player being paid broken time payments, which replaced wages lost as a result of playing rugby, representatives of the northern clubs met in Huddersfield to form the Northern Rugby Football Union NRFU.
The new body initially permitted only various types of player wage replacements. However, within two years, NRFU players could be paid, but they were required to have a job outside sport.
The demands of a professional league dictated that rugby had to become a better "spectator" sport. This was followed by the replacement of the ruck with the "play-the-ball ruck", which allowed a two-player ruck contest between the tackler at marker and the player tackled.
Mauls were stopped once the ball carrier was held, being replaced by a play-the ball-ruck. Over time, the RFU form of rugby, played by clubs which remained members of national federations affiliated to the IRFB, became known as rugby union.
The need for a single body to oversee association football had become apparent by the beginning of the 20th century, with the increasing popularity of international fixtures.
The English Football Association had chaired many discussions on setting up an international body, but was perceived as making no progress. It fell to associations from seven other European countries: The French name and acronym has remained, even outside French-speaking countries.
Rugby league rules diverged significantly from rugby union in , with the reduction of the team from 15 to 13 players.
In , a New Zealand professional rugby team toured Australia and Britain, receiving an enthusiastic response, and professional rugby leagues were launched in Australia the following year.
However, the rules of professional games varied from one country to another, and negotiations between various national bodies were required to fix the exact rules for each international match.
During the second half of the 20th century, the rules changed further. In , rugby league officials borrowed the American football concept of downs: The maximum number of tackles was later increased to six in , and in rugby league this became known as the six tackle rule.
The laws of rugby union also changed during the 20th century, although less significantly than those of rugby league. In particular, goals from marks were abolished, kicks directly into touch from outside the 22 metre line were penalised, new laws were put in place to determine who had possession following an inconclusive ruck or maul , and the lifting of players in line-outs was legalised.
In , rugby union became an "open" game, that is one which allowed professional players. The word football , when used in reference to a specific game can mean any one of those described above.
Because of this, much friendly controversy has occurred over the term football , primarily because it is used in different ways in different parts of the English-speaking world.
Most often, the word "football" is used to refer to the code of football that is considered dominant within a particular region. So, effectively, what the word "football" means usually depends on where one says it.
In each of the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada, one football code is known solely as "football", while the others generally require a qualifier.
In New Zealand, "football" historically referred to rugby union , but more recently may be used unqualified to refer to association football.
The sport meant by the word "football" in Australia is either Australian rules football or rugby league , depending on local popularity which largely conforms to the Barassi Line.
Several of the football codes are the most popular team sports in the world. These codes have in common the prohibition of the use of hands by all players except the goalkeeper , unlike other codes where carrying or handling the ball is allowed.
The hockey game bandy has rules partly based on the association football rules and is sometimes nicknamed as 'winter football'.
These codes have in common the ability of players to carry the ball with their hands, and to throw it to teammates, unlike association football where the use of hands is prohibited by anyone except the goal keeper.
They also feature various methods of scoring based upon whether the ball is carried into the goal area, or kicked through a target. These codes have in common the absence of an offside rule, the prohibition of continuous carrying of the ball requiring a periodic bounce or solo toe-kick , depending on the code while running, handpassing by punching or tapping the ball rather than throwing it, and other traditions.
Games still played at UK public independent schools:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Group of related team sports.
This article is about the overall concept of games called football. For the balls themselves, see Football ball.
For specific versions of the game and other uses of the term, see Football disambiguation. Attempts to ban football games. English public school football games.
Origins of Australian rules football. The first football international, Scotland versus England. Once kept by the Rugby Football Union as an early example of rugby football.
History of rugby union. History of Gaelic football. History of rugby league. Variants of association football. Comparison of American football and rugby league , Comparison of American football and rugby union , Comparison of Canadian and American football , and Comparison of rugby league and rugby union.
Comparison of Australian rules football and Gaelic football. Journal of Sports Science. Soccer — or should we say football — must change".
Retrieved 29 April Retrieved 11 January Football at Winchester, Eton and Harrow". The International Journal of the History of Sport.
Journal of Sports Sciences. Science and Football Second ed. Retrieved 14 December Baltic Journal of Health and Physical Activity.
University of Hawaii Press. Kennell, The Gymnasium of Virtue: Violence in Early Modern Europe — Le sport et les jeux d'exercice dans l'ancienne France.
Retrieved January 11, , from http: Sociological Studies of Sport, Violence and Civilisation. Sports in the Western World.
University of Illinois Press. Archived from the original on Women, Football and Europe: Histories, Equity and Experience.
International Football Institute Series. Encyclopedia of British Football. The game was this: The First Hundred Years. Archived from the original on November 21, Retrieved April 24, Retrieved June 9, Archived June 16, , at the Wayback Machine.
It is known that he created this for both association and rugby footballs. However, sites devoted to football indicate he was known as HJ Lindon , who was actually Richard Lindon's son, and created the ball in ref: Soccer Ball World , whereas rugby sites refer to him as Richard Lindon creating the ball in ref: Both agree that his wife died when inflating pig's bladders.
This information originated from web sites which may be unreliable, and the answer may only be found in researching books in central libraries.
History of football from the beginnings to From Sheffield with Love. Football, the First Hundred Years. Retrieved 5 January Archived from the original on June 25, Archived from the original on June 11, Running with the Ball: Hacking — a history Archived at the Wayback Machine.
Retrieved July 1, The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to Professional Football Researchers Association.
Archived from the original PDF on Archived from the original on February 28, Official Site of the Canadian Football League.
Archived from the original on 1 May Retrieved 13 July The History of Sports. Rutgers Through The Years. The Professional Football Researchers Association.
Archived from the original on 13 December Retrieved 1 December American Football —" PDF. National Football League Properties, Inc.
College Football Historical Society: Archived from the original on 22 April Retrieved 28 September December 17, "ASA chairman Frank Lowy said the symbolic move would bring Australia into line with the vast majority of other countries which call the sport football.
Archived from the original on 22 September Archived from the original on 5 March Archived from the original PDF on 15 September Retrieved 15 September Retrieved 11 October It has been estimated that there were 22 million soccer players in the world in the early s, and that number is increasing.
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Archived from the original PDF on 28 October Retrieved 21 October Retrieved 17 October This motion allows for some of the offensive linemen, often one or both guards, to pull from their normal positions and establish a lane for the running back to run through.
A lead blocking fullback often leads him through the lane. This play, known as the Packers sweep , was the central play in Vince Lombardi 's "run-to-daylight" offense that was so successful for the Green Bay Packers of the s.
In a trap, a guard on the back side of the play away from the direction the fullback or running back is heading will pull and lead block for the running back most of the time, the guard will blindside an unblocked down linemen, and kick him out of the play.
Often, the full-back will take the place of the guard, and block the opening allowed by this. Also called a misdirection.
In this play, the runner begins by taking a step or two away from his intended path, then doubling back and heading in the opposite direction.
Often defenders are clueing on the first move of the running back. The defenders committed to the first step, but the play moves in the opposite direction.
Counter plays are often but not always coupled with influence blocking, where the offensive line blocks the defense towards rather than away from the intended direction of the play.
This gambit often causes the defenders to think the play is going in the opposite direction, and they react as such.
Also called a delay. In a draw play, the offensive line drops into pass blocking positions, and the quarterback takes a drop as though he were going to pass.
He then hands the ball off to his running back or keeps it himself and runs forward past the rushing defenders. The idea is that the defenders will be tricked in advancing on the quarterback as though it were a pass play, and this will vacate the area just beyond the line of scrimmage for the runner to take advantage of.
The quarterback fakes a handoff to the running back and continues running with the ball opposite from the direction the running back was headed.
The bootleg can have blockers similar to a sweep and in such cases is it often called a quarterback sweep or it can be run naked , that is without any blockers at all.
A naked bootleg relies on the defense buying the fake handoff and moving to tackle the running back rather than the quarterback.
The quarterback takes the snap and immediately dives to one side of the center or the other. This is often a short yardage play designed when only a yard or so is needed for a first down or a touchdown.
Often the only players on either side of the ball that know the play is coming are the quarterback and the center hence the sneak aspect of it , as the play is often decided by the quarterback upon seeing the defense.
The play is often called by a silent signal between quarterback and center a pinch or a tap in the direction the sneak is headed. The wide receiver takes a handoff directly from the quarterback.
The receiver then may proceed to do one of two things: This play resembles a sweep, but before the running back crosses the line of scrimmage, he hands the ball off to a wide receiver going in them reverse opposite direction of where the running back was going.
If the defense was drawn to the side of the field the running back was going towards, the receiver can outrun the defense to the other side of the field and make a big gain.
An option play is a play in which the quarterback holds the ball and runs to either side of the offensive line, waiting for an opportunity to run upfield and advance the ball.
At the same time, the running back follows, allowing the quarterback the 'option' of pitching the ball just before he is tackled. This tactic forces defensive players to commit to either preventing the pitch or tackling the quarterback, allowing the offensive team to choose the best result.
The option play requires a very fast and mobile quarterback to execute it, and employs a great deal of risk, because if the pitch is mishandled it is a live ball that can be recovered by the defense.
The option is rarely seen outside of college football, as high school teams lack the skill to execute it properly, and defensive players on professional teams are quick enough to disrupt the play to the point that it doesn't merit the risk involved.
College football teams West Virginia and Air Force often employ this playstyle. A common form of the option executed on the high school, collegiate, and occasionally professional levels is the veer.
A route is a path or pattern that a receiver in American football and Canadian football runs to get open for a forward pass. A go or fly route is a deep route used typically when the receiver has a speed advantage over the defensive back.
In the route, the receiver will run as fast as possible in order to get deeper than the defensive back allowing the quarterback to throw the ball in a spot where only the receiver can get to it.
Due to the speed of the current NFL and college games the go will often be preceded by a double move. A post is a deep play where wide receivers run straight down the field a short distance yards , and then angle in towards the center of the field toward the goal 'posts', or like a 'flag post' where the ball is caught at high speed.
When this play was originally designed, the goal posts were on the "zero" yard line, in the front of the endzone - thus, a cornerback in man coverage would be led into the post.
In a skinny post, the route is shorter and quicker than a deep post, which may cover 30 or 40 yards. This may also be referred to as a "glance in" or a "bang eight.
A flag or corner route is a deep play where wide receivers run straight down the field a long distance — feet , and then angle out towards the end zone and sideline.
It takes its name from the flags that marked the ends of the goal and end lines before the introduction of flexible pylons.
An out route will usually feature the receiver running 7 to 10 yards downfield and then making a 90 degree turn towards the sideline.
The In or Drag route is the opposite of the Out route. As its name suggests, the route will usually feature the receiver running 7 to 10 yards downfield and then making a 90 degree turn towards the center of the field.
A receiver takes two steps or more downfield then cuts diagonally across the field behind the linebackers and in front of the safeties.
An eligible receiver runs a predetermined number of steps or yards upfield before stopping and turning back in slightly to face the Quarterback, in the hopes that the defender cannot react and disrupt the pass before positive yardage is made.
A flat route is named after the area of the field where it takes place. During a typical play, due to the routes of other receivers, there is an area of the field that is vacated.
This area known as the " flats " is typically from the hash marks to the sideline and from the line of scrimmage to yards downfield. The route itself may be executed several ways.
The most common is also known as the arrow. This consists of a receiver lining up near the offensive tackle and then taking a short angled path directly to this area.
Running backs often will execute a special flat route that involves them running toward the sideline without the ball from the backfield and then turning upfield as a receiver.
This is often referred to as a swing route. Particularly in the highest levels of competition professional and major college , a play may call for the receiver to 'read' the defensive coverage against him, and run a second route if the first option would be ineffectual.
As an example, the receiver may be instructed to begin with a slant route, but if the defender has that covered, switch to an out route.
For this to work correctly, the passer must make the same read as the receiver. A screen pass is a pass that is normally thrown to a receiver or running back behind the line of scrimmage.
It is thrown behind the line of scrimmage so that the pulling linemen can get their blocks established. There is another screen called a bubble screen where there are 3 receivers bunched together to one side, and after the snap the ball is almost instantly thrown to the one farthest behind the line of scrimmage.
The quarterback takes the snap and drops back to fake a handoff to the running back. The quarterback then rapidly pulls the ball back from the faked handoff, trying to hide it from the defense.
The running back continues to move upfield as if he has the ball in his hands. The offensive line starts to run block, but then quickly goes into pass protection.
The receivers appear to block at first, then go into their routes.